Treaty 10, signed in 1906–07, covered the northern portions of the province which were not included by Treaties 6 or 8. The area of Treaty 10 also encompassed regions that were not surrendered by those groups who adhered to Treaty 6 but had traditionally occupied lands within the Treaty 10 region. This Treaty was largely modeled on Treaty 8. In exchange for access to the surrendered territory and similarly to the promises made under Treaty 8, it was agreed that Canada would provide reserves, annuities, clothing and medals, articles for cultivation, education, and the rights to hunt, fish and trap. As in the case of Treaty 8, it was access to mining and timber resources that most interested the government and spurred its desire to conclude a treaty in the northern portions of the province. For the Indians who took part in these negotiations, it was the maintenance of traditional livelihoods, access to lands, and the provision of health and education that were most important.

Rob Nestor

Further Reading

Ray, A., J. Miller and F. Tough. 2000. Bounty and Benevolence. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.