The Shoal Lake First Nation consists of 1,479 ha of land, 92 km east of Nipawin and 20 km downstream from the Red Earth Reserve. The community’s single village is referred to as Pakwaw Lake, and is situated on the western edge of the reserve. The Shoal Lake Band originated with three individuals—Okakeek, Osawask, and Kis-moswakapaw—the last two being brothers. Living on the western edge of the Saskatchewan River delta in the 1850s these Swampy Cree were familiar with both the rich resources of the delta’s lakes and rivers, and with White agricultural practices. An adhesion to Treaty 5 was signed in 1876, and a reserve surveyed in 1882. By the turn of the century people subsisted on gardening, ranching, hunting and fishing, and new arrivals of farmers in the Carrot River area following World War II offered both off-reserve employment and a market for their agricultural products. An all-weather road was built to Shoal Lake in 1960-61, expanding options of band members to utilize increased training and employment opportunities. There are 747 registered band members, with 632 people living on reserve.